A.

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Pope John Paul II Shared Highly Negative View of Western Liberalism

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Russian writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, who died Sunday at the age of 89 in Moscow, was greatly admired by the late Pope John Paul II. According to Ted Lipien, the author of a recently published book, Wojtyla’s Women, How They Shaped the Life of Pope John Paul II and Changed the Catholic Church, both men shared a highly negative view of Western liberalism.

 

Like Solzhenitsyn, John Paul II was also convinced that the East Europeans, who for many decades had been forced to live under an atheistic system, have a much stronger attachment to religion than people in the West. In the mid 1980s, John Paul II published an encyclical, Slavorum apostoli, in which he presented a vision of a unified Europe with the traditional values of the Slavic nations and Eastern Christianity being incorporated into a common, Christian based European culture. In a 1993 interview, John Paul II further elaborated his view that the East Europeans are more willing to accept the idea of God as the “ultimate and absolute” source of human dignity: “The Easterner has realized this, the prisoner in the Gulag realized it, Solzhenitsyn realized it. In the West, man does not see this so clearly. He sees it up to a certain point. His awareness is to a large extent secularized. Not infrequently, he sees religion as something alienating.”

 

What the Russian writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn said about the West in his commencement address at Harvard University in June 1978, corresponded closely to Pope John Paul II’s own beliefs, although some of those who are familiar with the conditions of life in pre-communist Russia, the Soviet Union, and in the West may question their reasoning. Solzhenitsyn concluded that “through intense suffering” Russia has achieved “spiritual development of such intensity that the Western system in its present state of spiritual exhaustion does not look attractive.” Solzhenitsyn observed further that many people living in the West are dissatisfied with their own society, and even despise it for not being sufficiently spiritual. According to Solzhenitsyn, “destructive and irresponsible freedom has been granted boundless space,” and Western societies “appear to have little defense against the abyss of human decadence, […] misuse of liberty for moral violence against young people, motion pictures full of pornography, crime and horror.” Solzhenitsyn also complained about too much personal freedom and too much legalism in the West, making an interesting comment in 1978 that “when a government starts an earnest fight against terrorism, public opinion immediately accuses it of violating the terrorists’ civil rights.” Solzhenitsyn described his remarks about the West as “bitter truth,” but he assured his Harvard audience that he was speaking not as an adversary but as a friend. He concluded that human beings in the West are weakening, while in the East they are becoming firmer and stronger, although at that time they were still being oppressed by communist regimes. John Paul II also believed that the struggle against Marxist totalitarianism had made Eastern Europe religiously more mature. After Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn returned to Russia in the early 1990s from his exile in the United States, he continued to support a religious revival in Russia and remained highly critical of the West. The two men met in October 1993.

 

Solzhenitsyn’s prediction that the Western way of life was not likely to become the leading model for the rest of the world has been largely ignored by most middle class Russians and Central Europeans. Still, neither Solzhenitsyn nor John Paul II altered their belief that the Western liberal model poses tremendous dangers for the spirituality of people in the East. Asked in 1993 which part of Europe, the East or the West, has more to gain from the proposed reunification, John Paul II expressed fear that Eastern Europe faces a greater danger of losing its identity.

P.

Press Release About the Publication of Wojtyla’s Women: How They Shaped the Life of Pope John Paul II and Changed the Catholic Church

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Visit our website www.tedlipien.com

John Paul II Warned About Dangers of Secular Feminism But Accepted of Some of Its Ideas: A New Book — “Wojtyla’s Women” — Explores the Role of Women Who Shaped the Life of Pope John Paul II, Supported His Concept of New Feminism, and Changed the Catholic Church

 

The future Pope John Paul II told Polish Catholics before becoming pope that “we cannot leave the affairs of the Kingdom of God to women” and that “social advancement of women has in it a little bit of truth but also a great deal of error.” But he also accepted many ideas embraced by feminists.

 

/24-7PressRelease/ – SAN FRANCISCO, CA, June 17, 2008 – Ted Lipien’s new book, “Wojtyla’s Women: How They Shaped the Life of Pope John Paul II and Changed the Catholic Church,” published this month by the UK publisher O-Books and available on Amazon, reveals for the first time the role of remarkable women in the life of Karol Wojtyla and their impact on his papacy and the Catholic Church. The book also explores John Paul II’s views on feminism, gender roles, love, sex, abortion, and contraception in the context of unprecedented threats against human dignity during his lifetime, from pre-World War II anti-Semitism to the Holocaust, Nazi medical experiments on women prisoners, and communist dictatorship.

 

The book shows how John Paul II, the most charismatic and influential Pope in centuries, reshaped many facets of Catholic thought. Yet, as Ted Lipien demonstrates, Church policy on women during John Paul II’s papacy remained deeply resistant to popular modern ideas on gender roles. Wojtyla’s Women explores John Paul II’s views on women, marriage, family and sexual ethics from both feminist and conservative Christian perspectives. Previously untapped sources reveal the influence of his upbringing in Poland at the outset of the Twentieth Century, a time when deeply rooted traditions collided with rapid social change and new ideas, against a backdrop of war, genocide, and political oppression. As the book reveals, Polish women were a remarkable and unexpected influence on John Paul’s understanding of gender issues and the Catholic Church’s theology. They were also the main force behind his advancement of “New Feminism” as an alternative to radical and Marxist feminism in the West and in the communist world.

The future Pope John Paul II told Polish Catholics before becoming pope that “the affairs of the Kingdom of God” cannot be left only to women and that “social advancement of women has in it a little bit of truth but also a great deal of error.” But while he could not reach an understanding with liberal Western women because of vast differences in how he and they were shaped by culture and history, Karol Wojtyla nevertheless supported many ideas embraced by secular feminists and broke with many misogynist Christian traditions.

 

“Wojtyla’s Women” also analyzes the considerable impact of John Paul II’s views and papacy on the abortion debate in the United States and his conflict with the Clinton Administration over U.S. policies on birth control programs and abortion in the Third World. While John Paul II was successful in raising awareness of the moral aspects of abortion through his campaign of “culture of life versus culture of death,” Ted Lipien points out that he would have been appalled that the majority of U.S. presidential contenders in 2008 have been pro-choice, including the majority of those who are Roman Catholic (Joe Biden (D), Christopher Dodd (D), Rudolph Giuliani (R), Dennis Kucinich (D), Bill Richardson (D); only Senator Sam Brownback (R) and Alan Keyes (R) are pro-life). Barak Obama (D), Hillary Clinton (D), and Senator McCain (R) belong to Protestant Christian Churches. Both Obama and Clinton are strongly pro-choice, while McCain is pro-life. John Paul II would have been disappointed that abortion has not emerged in the U.S. as a major presidential campaign issue in 2008. Wojtyla’s campaign to promote natural birth control methods for women has not succeeded in any country, including his native Poland.

 

Ted Lipien’s book also reveals Pope John Paul II’s deep mistrust of Western liberalism and his condemnation of the United States as “a continent marked by competition and aggressiveness, unbridled consumerism and corruption.” In addition to abortion, he was particularly troubled by the growing support among Americans for ordination of women priests and social and legal acceptance of gay marriages. John Paul II doubted that the emergence of the United States at the end of the Cold War as the only superpower was good for the rest of the world and he strongly opposed the U.S. invasion of Iraq. Ted Lipien also reveals in his book how the KGB and the Polish communist security service recruited spies among John Paul II closest friends and their attempts to manipulate media coverage of his papacy.

Ted Lipien is a former director of the Polish Service of the Voice of America and a journalist with more than 30 years of reporting and writing about politics, society, women’s issues, and the Catholic Church in Poland. He lives in San Francisco.

 

www.tedlipien.com

 

Reviews of Wojtyla’s Women

 

Extremely detailed research into a heretofore unexamined aspect of the beloved Pope John Paul II’s life. This book is worthwhile reading for anyone interested in the personal network of highly influential women who shaped John Paul II’s attitudes, particularly on the debate of women’s roles. Dr. Nancy Snow, author of Information War

 

Ted Lipien has written an incisive and penetrating book on the role remarkable women, such as the Albanian-born nun and Nobel laureate Mother Teresa, played in shaping John Paul II’s outlook on important and controversial issues that defined his papacy. Much of the ground that Lipien covers in his meticulously documented book is not familiar to students of John Paul II’s papacy. He presents new information on the Pope’s enduring relationships with women who had an enormous impact on his life, offers original interpretations, and makes a significant contribution in advancing the theoretical discussion on John Paul II’s papacy. WOJTYLA’s WOMEN’s greatest strength lies in the author’s impassioned analysis of astonishingly complex issues and events. Lipien’s landmark book opens new paths for other scholars and is essential reading for specialists as well as the wider public. Dr. Elez Biberaj, author of Albania in Transition: The Rocky Road to Democracy

 

I read Ted Lipien’s important book with enormous interest. Few persons are as qualified as he is to enlighten readers about Pope John Paul II’s Polish roots — and the impact that they had on his views on women. Lipien provides a stimulating analysis of the Pope’s ideas on gender roles and how John Paul believed the Church should deal with sexual issues. While he does not agree with many of the Pope’s stands on women, Lipien makes a laudatory effort to understand — and explain — them. This book is a must-read for anyone interested in the relationship between feminism and Catholicism, a key issue of our times. Dr. John H. Brown, former U.S. diplomat in Poland

I.

Index for Wojtyla’s Women, A Book About Pope John Paul II and His Views on Women and Feminism

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Wojtyla’s Women: How They Shaped the Life of Pope John Paul II and Changed the Catholic Church

Order on Amazon

INDEX

Abortion, 9-10, 15, 20-21, 27-29, 35, 40, 42, 48, 55, 109-111, 113, 117, 120-121, 125-126, 141, 144-145, 147, 151, 159, 162-163, 168, 170-171, 175, 177-178, 184, 191, 195, 198-199, 201, 203-205, 207, 212-213, 238, 240, 242-244, 251-253, 257, 259, 265-266, 268, 272-273, 275, 280, 284-285, 288, 290-291, 297-302, 307-309, 311, 315, 321, 325-330, 332, 335-336, 338-339, 343, 346, 359-366, 368-369, 378, 380-381, 383-385, 389-424, 430, 437-438, 441-445, 448-452, 455, 458-459, 461, 469, 474, 479, 491, 501, 506-507, 510-511, 521, 532-533, 536-538, 542-545, 547-548, 552, 555, 567, 572, 576, 578-579, 583, 609, 616, 622, 639, 647, 651, 655-656, 661-663, 666-667, 673-674
Abramowicz-Stachura, Zofia, 107-108, 606
African Americans, 89, 177, 188, 327, 398-400, 518
African American women, 399, 662
AfterAbortion.org, 457
Alas! A blog, 461
Albert Chmielowski Foundation, 589-590
Albertine Brothers, 81
Albertine Sisters, 81
Albright, Madeleine, 173
AlterNet, 372
American women, 9, 13, 21, 24, 32, 129, 152, 160, 167, 240, 350, 361, 398, 399, 406, 483, 643, 662
Anarcha, 370,
Anarkismo.net, 370
Anglican Communion, The, 480
Angry Black Bitch, 461
Anti-Semitism, 28, 88-89, 197, 258, 283, 313, 318, 320, 322, 324, 352, 417, 581
Anti-street Harassment UK, 457
Applebaum, Anne, 169
Arendt, Hannah, 82-83
Ascherson, Neal, 235, 423-424, 615, 646, 664
Auschwitz, also Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi extermination camp, also Oświęcim
33, 42, 143, 285, 288, 303, 309-310, 316-319, 322, 328, 331, 334-335, 338, 351, 353, 404, 423, 424, 531, 608, 654, 656

Balasuriya, Tissa, 491-492
Bardecki, Andrzej, 434, 597-598
Batka, Marian, 323
Beauvoir, Simone de, 9, 149-150, 155-159, 162, 176, 189, 353, 639, 641, 643
Beer, Regina, 88-89
Benedict XVI, Pope, also see Ratzinger, Joseph, 22, 31, 44, 52, 71, 136, 165, 171, 173-174, 475, 490, 513, 523, 535, 541, 557, 566, 570-571, 574-580, 619, 622, 630-631, 676,
Benedictine Sisters of Erie, The, 179-180
Bennett, William J., 367
Bernstein, Carl, 76, 143, 342, 347-349, 365, 426, 507, 509, 612, 615, 639, 657-659, 664, 668, 670-671, 678-679
Biberaj, Elez, 4
Biden, Joe, 410
Billings LIFE, 447
Birth Control, 12, 17, 21-22, 24, 27, 29, 40-41, 55, 80, 85, 95, 122, 154, 162, 190, 195, 198, 202-203, 226, 247, 252-253, 257, 259, 268, 276, 280, 287, 288, 289, 290, 294-299, 325, 348-349, 359, 362, 364, 373, 387-390, 393-394, 399, 409, 418, 421, 424-425, 427, 429, 431, 433-439, 441-443, 445-448, 451-452, 469, 471-472, 483, 501, 507, 510, 529, 545, 556, 565, 567-568, 576, 578-579, 581-583, 587, 592-593, 600
Birthright International, 455
Bitch Ph.D., 461
Black Genocide, 398-399, 661
Black Madonna, The, 60, 128, 214-216, 261-262, 287-288, 335, 445, 645
BlackGenocide.org, 398-399
Blackwell, Antoinette Brown, 150, 152-153
Bloom, Phil Fr., 452
Boff, Leonardo, 146
Boniecki, Adam, 79, 615, 632
Bortnowska, Halina, 396, 564-565, 676
Bosnia, 172, 226, 369
Bosnian women, rape of, 395-396
Braschi, Antonio, 496
Braun-Gałkowska, Maria, 103
Broadsheet, 372
Brown, John H, 4-5
Brownback, Sam, 410
Browne, Martin, 180
Brunner, Pia, 496
Bruskewitz, Fabian, 196
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 173, 345, 350, 351
Buchanan, Pat, 367
Bush, George W., 147, 177, 197, 278, 367, 402-403, 474, 537, 566
BushTelegraph, 372
Byrne, Lavinia, 185, 615
California Catholic Women’s Forum, 194
Call to Action, 193, 196, 644
Canticle Magazine, 466
Cardinal Wojtyła SOS, 41, 423, 454
Care Net, 455
CAREConfidential, 455
Cassidy, Edward, 322
Catholic Apostolic Charismatic Church of “Jesus the King”, 496
Catholic Culture, 158
Catholic Information Network, 511
Catholic Mom, 466
Catholic Moms, 466
Catholic News Service, 511
Catholic Order of the Humility of Mary, The, 142
Catholic Parenting, 466
Catholic University in Lublin (KUL), 2, 39-40, 103-106, 139, 374, 415, 531, 547
Catholic Youth Foundation, The 452
Catholic.net, 511
Catholic-Pages.com, 158
Catholics for a Free Choice, 192, 193, 397-398, 661
Catholics Speak Out, 188
Catholics United for the Faith, 145-146
Celtic Connection, The, 574
Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies in Religion, The, 187
Centrum Jana Pawła II in Kraków, 3
Chicago Catholic Women, 179, 192-193
Chittister, Joan, 179-181
Chmielowski, Albert Adam, Saint Albert, 81-82
Chopra, Deepak, 413
Christian Coalition of America, 366
Christian Family Movement, The, 192-193, 433
Christian-Universalism.com, 151
Church of Christ, Scientist, 151
Church of England, The, 480
CIA, 21, 278, 345, 596, 599-600, 602, 628, 678
Ciechomska, Maria, 232-233, 531, 615, 646, 673-674
Ciesielska, Danuta, 1, 100-101, 103, 635
Ciesielski, Jerzy, 1, 68, 78-80, 100
Clinton, Bill, 327, 363-365, 568, 576
Clinton, Hillary Rodham, 361-363, 394, 400, 408-409, 478, 506, 616, 658, 671
Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, 457
Coitus interruptus, 298-299, 391, 444
Colin, Margaret, 195
Commonweal, 538
Complementarity, gender, 8, 11, 14, 162, 191, 524-525, 530, 546
Concerned Women for America, 192, 194, 366-367
Consumerism, 16, 19, 28, 47, 171-172, 229, 239, 243, 271, 315, 321, 512
Contraception, 12, 17, 21-22, 24, 27, 29, 40-41, 55, 80, 85, 95, 122, 154, 162, 190, 195, 198, 202-203, 226, 247, 252-253, 257, 259, 268, 276, 280, 287, 288, 289, 290, 294-299, 325, 348-349, 359, 362, 364, 373, 387-390, 393-394, 399, 409, 418, 421, 424-425, 427, 429, 431, 433-439, 441-443, 445-448, 451-452, 469, 471-472, 483, 501, 507, 510, 529, 545, 556, 565, 567-568, 576, 578-579, 581-583, 587, 592-593, 600
Coughlin, Charles E., 28, 315, 629
Couple to Couple League, 447
Courtois, Stéphane, 169
Covenant House, Charleston, WV, 145
Covenant of the Goddess, 574
Creation Spirituality, 71
CreightonModel.com, 447
Culture of death, 191, 321, 389, 400, 402, 511, 573, 579
Culture of life, 191, 389, 400, 411, 554
Curran, Charles, 146, 165, 276, 616, 642, 649
Da Vinci Code, 527-528
Da Vinci Hoax, The, 527
Dads.org, 262
Daly, Mary, 9, 175-177, 186, 189, 342, 616, 643
Danube Seven, The, 496
Davídek, Felix Maria, 494-495, 497
Davies, Stuart, 4
Death Penalty, 27, 42, 165, 191, 195, 230, 272, 326, 365, 368-369, 396, 398, 407-408, 410-412, 419, 435, 536, 581
Defending Holy Matrimony, 466
Deskur, Andrzej Maria, 77
Different but equal, 11, 153, 190-191, 199, 517-518, 530
Dignity Canada, 539
DignityUSA, 539, 541
Dobson, James C., 366-367, 659
Domestic-Church.com, 466
Dworkin, Andrea, 203-205, 616, 644
Dziwisz, Stanisław, 28-29, 76-77, 80, 136, 244-245, 286, 362, 469-470, 590, 599-600, 606, 617, 624, 633, 638, 648, 651, 657-658, 668, 675, 678-679

E5men, 262
Ecofem.org, 459
Ecofeminism.net, 459
Eddy, Mary Baker, 150-152
Effective Fathers Ministries, 262
EMILY’s List, 409
ENDOW, 192, 194
Engel, Barbara, 143
Episcopal Church of the United States of America, The, 480
Episcopal Diocese of Fort Worth, 480
Episcopal Diocese of Quincy, 480
Episcopal Diocese of San Joaquin, 480
Episcopal Life Online, 480
Euthanasia, 42, 110, 191, 242, 243, 321, 324-326, 329-330, 369, 378, 383, 400-402, 412, 416, 424, 474, 536, 579
Evangelical Christians, 27, 160, 197, 272, 327, 365-369, 412, 512, 543, 561, 565-566, 569, 584, 677
Evangelium Vitae, 7, 42, 199, 389, 394-395, 536, 579
EVE ONLINE, 459

Falwell, Jerry, 366-367
Familiaris consortio, 42, 202, 462, 668
Family Facts, 466
Family of the Americas, 447
Father Pio, da Pietrelcina, 40, 294-295, 652
FatherDaughterDance.com, 262
Faustina, Saint, 41, 43, 112, 129-132, 620, 637
Fawcett Society, The, 457
Federation of Christian Ministries, 188
Federation of Poles in Great Britain, 174
Felician Sisters, 178
Fellowship of Catholic University Students, 452
Female genius, 11, 113, 191, 226
Female orgasm, 290-291, 428
Femina, 372, Feminist.com, 372
Feminine Mystique, The, 8-9, 207, 617-618, 624
Feminism and Nonviolence Studies Association, The, 192, 194
Feminist Allies, 461
Feminist Blogs, 461
Feminist Majority Foundation, 368
Feminist Theologians Liberation Network, 187
Feminist Women’s health Center, 447
Feministe, 461
Feministing.com, 461
Feminists Choosing Life, 457
Feminists for Animal Rights, 461
Feminists for Life, 192, 194-195, 396, 405,
Ferraro, Barbara, 145-147, 639
Ferraro, Geraldine, 144
Filipowicz, Stefan, SJ, 2, 593-595, 617, 678
Firley, Zofia, 126
Florek, Józefa, 39
Flynn, Ray, 57, 363-364, 617, 631, 637, 658-659
Focus on the Family, 366-367, 659
Forster, Gisela, 496
Fox, Matthew, 71, 146, 633
Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth, 153, 189, 617, 641
FreeMediaOnline.org, 3, 614, 643, 679
French, Marilyn, 169
Friedan, Betty, 8-10, 182, 367, 617-618, 624
Friends General Conference Library, 151
Future Church, 188
F-Word Ezine, The, 372

Galen, Clemens August Graf von, 326, 607-608
Gandhi, Mahatma, 553-556
Gebara, Ivone, 146
Gebert, Konstanty, 322
Genocide, 10, 55, 110, 172, 175, 203-205, 243, 284, 302, 329, 330, 339, 359, 369, 381, 393, 398-400, 403, 405, 408, 474, 561, 568, 583, 590, 604, 651, 661, 679
Germana, Sister, 137-138
German women, 169, 325-326, 356, 642, 655
German women, rape of, 642
Gift Foundation, 466
Girlistic, 461
Giuliani, Rudolph, 410
Glendon, Mary Ann, 42, 138, 537-538, 638, 673
Global Ethic Foundation, The, 563
God of Desire, 164
God Talk, 188
Goldszmit, Henryk, 323
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 346, 560, 675
Gore, Al, 363, 575
Graham, Billy, Rev., 565
Grail, The, 192-193
Gramick, Jeannine, 146, 539
Gravel, Mike, 411
Grażyna, 218-219
Greeley, Andrew M., 196, 433, 459, 483, 557, 617, 628, 644, 667, 669, 675
Gryglowska, Alina, 40, 336, 338, 657
Gutiérrez, Gustavo, 144, 146

Halter, Marek, 319
Hampson, Daphne, 149, 181-184, 618, 639, 643
Harris, Barbara Clementine, 480
Havel, Václav, 553-555, 675
Heartbeat International, 455
Heaton, Patricia, 195
Hodur, Franciszek (Francis), 500-503
Hoffman, Eva, 306, 653
Holocaust, 89, 203-205, 319, 321, 325, 339, 352, 404-405, 515, 604, 611, 619, 634, 655-656, 663, 679
Holy Family Institute, 466
Hoover Institution, 3
Horodyska, Jadwiga, 92
Horowitz, Daniel, 9, 618, 624
Huckabee, Mike, 412
Humanae vitae, 12, 40-41, 162, 287, 296, 433-439, 441-444, 448, 471, 593, 665
Hunt, John 4
Hunt, Mary E., 187
Hunter, Duncan, 412
Hunthausen, Raymond, 146
Hussey, Particia, 145-147, 639

Individualism, 8, 23, 66, 85, 153, 163, 190, 236, 275-276, 355-358, 370-371, 374-375, 380, 580, 585, 587, 609, 617, 641, 658
Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary, The, 185
Institute of Women Today, The, 176-177
Iraq, 21, 27, 146, 168, 177, 197, 278
Isakowicz-Zaleski, T., 76, 96, 589-590, 618, 631, 633, 651
Islam, 29-30, 172, 198, 278-279, 359, 364-365, 513, 517, 535, 575, 633, 677

Jadwiga, (Hedwig), Queen, Saint, 18-20, 42, 226-231,
Jadwiga, Sister, (Wojtyła’s secretary), 135
Jagiellonian University in Kraków, 38-39, 59, 61, 63, 74, 88, 140, 229-230, 297, 316, 342, 429, 501, 627
Javorová, Ludmila, 494-497
Jesus Crowd, 452,
Jesus Decoded, 527
Jesus Youth, 452
Jews, Judaism, 23, 28-29, 33, 47, 58, 88-89, 91, 117, 123, 171-172, 182, 188, 205, 282, 285, 309, 312-328, 330, 351-352, 356, 358, 365, 408, 424, 508, 513-515, 519, 601, 605, 608, 610-611, 620, 633, 654-655, 662
Jodko, Marta, 92
John of the Cross, Saint, 70, 72
John Paul II, Short Biography of, 38-43

Kaczorowska, Emilia, 38, 47-50, 456
Kane, Theresa, Sister, 41, 141-143
Karski, Jan, 610-611
Kasperkiewicz, Karolina, 40, 105
Katyń, 34, 602, 613, 621, 629
KEPHA, 262
Keyes, Alan, 410
KGB, 31, 34, 386, 592, 596, 598-600, 606, 615, 678
Kinaszewska, Irena, 596-597
Kissinger, Henry, 173
Kissling, Frances, 397-398
Kler-Med, 297
Kluger, Jerzy, 88, 322
Kolbe, Maximilian, Saint, 309-318, 321-324, 488, 654
Kolbenschlag, Madonna, 142, 638
Korbońska, Zofia, 4
Korboński, Stefan, 4, 91-92
Korczak, Janusz, 323
Kotlarczyk, Mieczysław, 65, 67-68, 73-74, 86-87, 260
Kotlarczyk, Zofia, 64, 73, 86-87, 260
Kowalska, Faustyna, Sister, Saint, 41, 43, 112, 129-132, 620, 637
Kozłowska, Felicja, 497, 499-500
Krol, John, 196, 572
Królikiewicz, Halina, Kwiatkowska, 38-39, 62, 87, 630
Kucinich, Dennis, 410
Küng, Hans, 146, 563-564, 619, 649, 676
Kwitny, Jonathan, 76, 288, 296, 298-299, 301, 343, 345, 348, 350, 619, 649, 651-653, 657-658, 665, 670, 675
Kydryńska, Aleksandra, 39, 90

Lackorońska, Karolina, 305-306, 332-334, 619, 653, 656
LaHaye, Beverly, 366
Lasota, Marek, 597, 619, 657, 678
Latoś-Kasprzyk, Teofila, 2
Lay Missionaries of Charity, 360
Leadership Conference of Women Religious, The, 141, 192-193
Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Religious Archives Network, 187
Leszczyńska, Stanisława, 42, 334-335, 339, 607-608
Lewaj, Jadwiga, 39, 92
Liberalism, 9, 23, 29, 66, 85, 93, 113, 161, 163, 167, 170, 199, 236, 239, 241-243, 246, 248, 280, 282, 284, 315-316, 330, 338, 355-356, 370, 371-372, 378, 383, 386, 388, 429, 484, 535, 559, 561, 585, 587, 609, 625
Liberation Theology, 82, 144, 218, 494
Library of Congress, 3
Life (UK), 455
Life Teen, 452
Likoudis, James, 145-146
Lipien-Rohrer, Leokadia (Lodi), 1
Lipien, Ted, iv
Lipień, Helena Maciaszek, 1
Lipień, John, 605
Lipień, Marek, 2
Lipień, Stanisław Bolesław, 1
Living Rosary, 69, 72-73
Lobcom.org, 370
Lorence-Kot, Bogna, 308
Loreto Sisters, 185
Love and Responsibility Foundation, 164
Love and Responsibility, 7, 40, 79, 93, 98-99, 108, 111, 164, 191, 289, 290-292, 299, 339, 394, 424-426, 428, 432, 436, 623, 634-635, 652, 654, 664
Love One Another Magazine, 452

Maciaszek, Justyna, 2
Maciaszek, Marta, 2
Maliński, Mieczysław, 63-64, 67, 70, 72-77, 80, 86, 91, 100, 128, 135, 202, 238-239, 274, 323, 342-343, 416-418, 434, 453, 589, 590-591-592, 606, 619, 633-635, 637-638, 647, 657, 663, 665-667, 677-678
Mały Dziennik, 312
Mansour, Mary Agnes, 146
Maria Shelter, 176-177
Mariavites, 498-504, 670
Martinus Polonus, 487-488
Marxism, 9, 25, 66, 84, 93, 113, 148, 154, 156, 160, 162-163, 168-169, 218, 236, 240, 246, 314, 346, 353, 370-372, 494, 532, 639
Matylda, Sister, 137
Mayr-Lumetzberger, Christine, 496
McCain, John, 411-412
Media Watch, 457
Michnik, Adam, 533-536, 654, 673
Mickiewicz, Adam, 65, 208-210, 213, 217-220
Militia of the Immaculate, The, 313
Millett, Kate, 156-158
Miłosz, Czesław, 283, 314, 650
Ministry at Pacific School of Religion, 187
Ministry to Persons with a Homosexual Inclination, 539
Missionaries of Charity Fathers, 360
Missionaries Under The Sun, 158
Modjeska, Helena, also Helena Modrzejewska, 82-83
Modrzejewska, Helena, also Helena Modjeska, 83-83
Molla, Gianna Beretta, Saint, 396-397
Monfort, Louis Marie Grignion de, 80
Mother Teresa – The Path of Love, 360
Mother Teresa of Calcutta Center, 360
Mother Teresa, Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, 5, 10, 43, 55, 284, 359-362, 462, 637, 658
MS Magazine, 368
Mszana Dolna, 107
Mulieris dignitatem, 42, 464, 469, 668
Muller, Iris, 496
Myss, Caroline, 71

Nancy, Snow, 4-5
NARAL Pro-Choice America, 368
National Association of Evangelicals, 366
National Catholic Register, The, 511
National Coalition of American Nuns, The, 176-177
National Fellowship of Catholic Men, 262
National Organization of Men Against Sexism, 372
National Organization of Women (NOW), 368
NET Ministries of Canada, 452
Neu, Diann L., 187
New Age, 71, 181, 413, 574-575
New feminism, 7, 10-11, 26, 42, 153, 162, 187, 189-192, 194, 199, 352-353, 478, 536-538, 577-578, 623, 638, 644, 676
New Ways Ministry, 539-540
No Status Quo, 370
Noonan, Peggy, 573, 620, 676
Nostra Ateate, 320
Nowicka, Wanda, 450-451, 548, 666
Nowojka, 61, 488
Nugent, Robert, 146, 539
Nussbaum, Martha C, 555, 620, 675

O’Brien, Darcy, 117, 322, 620, 633, 654
O’Reilly, Jane, 147
Obama, Barak, 399, 409-410, 413
O-Books, 5
Omegarock.com, 452
One More Soul Canada, 466
Open Embrace, 447
Oprah, Winfrey, 413
OptionLine, 455
Opus Dei, 28, 198, 363, 371, 527, 629
Order of Our Lady of Mercy in Łagiewniki, 3, 133
Ordinatio sacerdotalis, 42, 462, 469, 471-474, 477, 489-491, 496, 522, 668-669
Our Lady’s Warriors, 158

Paetz, Juliusz, 286, 651
Pagan Dawn, 574,
Pagan Federation International, The, 574
Pagan Federation, 574
Paglia, Camille, 148, 639
Paul VI, Pope, 12, 35, 40-41, 257, 276, 287, 295-296, 320, 348, 433-439, 442-443, 464-465, 471-472, 557, 579, 582-583, 591, 597, 648, 665
Paul, Ron, 412
Personalism Library, The, 164
Personalism, 10, 163-164, 191, 375
Piekut, M. Beata, 130, 637
Pietrzyk, Basia, 304
Pigozzi, Caroline, 136-137, 620, 638
Planned Parenthood, 368, 658, 666
Plater, Emilia, 218-219
Poland, Brief Outline of History, 32-37
Polish American Congress, 174
Polish Information & Culture Center in Dublin, 174
Polish National Catholic Church of Canada, 500
Polish National Catholic Church, 17, 500-503, 671
Polish Roman Catholic Union of America, 178-179
Polish women, 7-8, 11-13, 17, 20-21, 24, 32, 35, 48, 53, 68, 91-92, 106, 111-112, 117, 129-130, 171, 216-220, 222-223, 225-226, 232-233, 240-241, 244, 246-251, 253-254, 256, 258-259, 261, 266-267, 284, 298, 302, 304-305, 307, 327, 328, 334-338, 367, 384, 395, 414, 444, 446, 451, 456, 543-544, 546-553, 582, 586, 588, 592-593, 624, 627-629, 642, 663, 674
Politi, Marco, 76, 143, 342, 347-349, 365, 426, 507, 509, 612, 615, 639, 657-659, 664, 668, 670-671, 678-679
Polski Dublin, 174
Poole, Myra, 180
Pope Joan, 487-488, 612, 670
PornNoMore.com, 262
Półtawska, Wanda, 10, 12-13, 40, 55, 80, 215, 285-286-289-303, 305-309, 311-312, 329-330, 339, 344, 348-349, 428, 432, 434, 448, 582-583, 596, 620, 624, 651-653
Positivism, 240-241, 244
Późniakowa, Zofia, 39
Probst, Christoph, 607-608, 679
Pro-Life Alliance of Gays and Lesbians, 457
Promise Keepers, 366-367
Pure Love Club, 452

Quinn, Donna, 179, 181, 184
Quinn, Sally, 160

Radical Women, 370
Radio Maryja, 28-29, 243, 382-383, 385, 536, 581, 629, 653, 660, 676-677
Rahner, Karl, 146, 202
Raming, Ida, 496
Ranke-Heinemann, Uta, 529, 621, 673
Rape Crisis England and Wales, 457
Ratzinger, Joseph, also see Benedict XVI, 22-23, 44, 52, 71, 146, 165, 171, 188, 198, 418, 475, 489-490, 497, 503, 513-514, 523-524, 539, 557, 571-572, 577, 607-608, 621, 628, 642, 676
Ravensbrück Nazi Concentration Camp, 40, 302, 304-306, 308, 311, 332, 333, 619, 653, 656
Reappropriate, 461
Redstockings, 370
Reed, Cheryl L. 178, 572, 574, 621, 643, 676,
Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice, 368
Remember the Women Institute, 205
Revolution of Love, 452
Rhythm Method, 120, 247, 253, 298, 390, 429, 441, 443, 446-447, 583, 600
Richardson, Bill, 410
Rights of Women, 457
Roberts, Jane Sullivan, 195, 644
Roberts, John G., 195
Robertson, Pat, 366-367, 659
Robinson, V. Gene, 480
Roe v. Wade, 175, 284, 361, 366, 410, 412
Rohrer, Chloe, 1
Rohrer, Douglas, 1
Roitinger, Adelinde Theresia, 496
Roman Catholic Womenpriests, 166-167
Romney, W. Mitt, 411
Rosen, Hannah, 610
Rothschild, Elizabeth S., 610
Rowbotham, Sheila, 149, 621, 639
Ruether, Rosemary Radford, 149, 192, 194, 621, 639, 644
Rybicka, Danuta, 94, 100, 114-115, 458, 634-637
Rydzyk, T., 382, 629
Ryś, Maria, 301, 652

Safir, Enver, 4
Saint Maria Messenger, 452
Sapieha, Stefan, 39, 68, 74-75, 84, 91
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 155, 429
Schillebeeckx, Edward, 146
Scholl, Hans, 607-608, 679
Scholl, Sophie, 607-608, 679
School Sisters of Notre Dame, The, 176-177, 539
Schori, Katharine Jefferts, 480
Schumacher, Michele M., 190, 199, 342, 578, 623, 644, 676
Schüssler Fiorenza, Elizabeth, 154, 157-158, 161, 172, 184, 187-188, 621, 641, 644
Scottish Women’s Aid, 457
Second Sex, The, 9, 24-25, 148-149, 156-159, 175-176, 207, 615-616, 639, 643
Sinsinawa Dominican Sisters, 176, 179
Sisters of Mercy, The, 141, 639
Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur, 145
Solzhenitsyn, Alexander, 376-378, 659
Sontag, Susan, 82-83, 633
Southeastern Pennsylvania Women’s Ordination Conference, 188
Southern Baptist Convention, 366
Spiritus Christi Church, 188
Stabrowska, Halina, 337, 607
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 150-151, 518, 640, 672, 672
State Department, U.S., 34, 278, 373, 602, 613-614, 627
Steichen, Donna, 184, 189, 621, 643
Stein, Edith, Saint, 318, 351-358, 622, 658
Stop Violence Against Women, 457
Stucky-Schaller, Magrit, 143
Styczeń, T., 106, 531-532, 622, 659, 673
Suchocka, Hanna, 380
Suenens, Leo Jozef, 162, 622, 641
Susan B. Anthony List, 192, 194
Szczepańska, Helena, 41, 49-50,
Szkocka, Irena, 39, 90-91
Szulc, Tad, 76, 433, 438, 665

Tarnowska, Maria, 102-103
Teresa of Ávila, Saint, 70, 352-353, 465
The Acting Person, 2, 13, 41, 164, 168, 292, 339-340, 622, 657
The f word, 461
Theology of the Body International Alliance, 164
Theology of the Body Times Square Discussion Group, 164
Theology of the Body, 16, 164, 203
These Last Day Ministries, 158
Thompson, Fred, 412
Tobiana, Sister, 6, 43, 137
Tradition in Action, 99
Traxler, Margaret, 176-177, 181, 184, 643
True Girl Magazine, 452
Turowicz, Jerzy, 388-389, 460, 649
Tygodnik Powszechny, 79, 257, 317, 388, 460, 596, 598, 633, 649, 678
Tymieniecka, Anna-Teresa, 2, 13, 41, 168, 277, 339-344, 347-351, 426, 583, 622, 657, 664
Tyranowski, Jan, 68-74, 78, 632

U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, The, 205
Union of Utrecht of the Old Catholic Churches, 500
Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations, 151
University of California at Berkley, 3
University of Fribourg, 342
Utilitarianism, 244, 429

Vanzant, Iyanla, 413
Vatican Council II, 40, 167, 196, 201, 320, 415, 417-418, 464, 467, 492, 503
Vatican Radio, 2, 523-524, 593-595, 598, 601, 614
Vladimiroff, Christine, 180
Voice of America (VOA), 4, 34, 593, 600-602, 604, 611-614

Waldheim, Kurt, 324
Walewska, Maria, 218, 224
Wanda, Princess, 218, 220-222
Wanderer, The, 538
Ward, Mary, 185
Wasser, Hedwig, 143
WATER (Women’s Alliance for Theology, Ethics, and Ritual), 187, 192
Weber, Anka, 88
Weigel, George, 76, 164, 276, 277, 366, 630-631, 633, 635, 641, 652-653, 657, 665, 678
White, Angela, 496
Wicca, 574
Wikipedia, 3, 608, 660
Williamson, Marianne, 413
Witches’ Voice, 574
Wojtarowicz, Teresa, 106
Wojtyła, Edmund, 38, 48, 52, 55
Wojtyła, Karol (Pope John Paul II), Short Biography of, 38-43
Wojtyła, Karol, Sr., 38, 45-48
Wojtyła, Olga, 38, 48
Wolska, Klawera, 103-104
Wołoszyn, Maria, 3
Woman’s Bible, The, 152, 640
Womankind, 457
Women Affirming Life, 192, 194, 457
Women for Faith and Family, 192, 200, 466
Women of the Third Millennium, 192, 194
Women priests, 16-17, 29-30, 101, 112, 182, 193, 199, 202, 279, 343, 361, 402, 462, 469, 471-472, 479, 481-483, 485, 488-491, 495-497, 499-500, 503, 564, 570-572, 580, 609, 641, 667
Women’s Alliance for Theology, Ethics, and Ritual, 187, 192
Women’s eNews, 372
Women’s Environmental Network, 459
Women’s Justice Coalition, 188
Women’s Ordination Conference, The, 187-188, 192-193
Women’s Seminary Quarter, The, 192
Women’s Voice for the Earth, 459
Women-Church Convergence, The, 192-193
Women-Church, 155, 184, 192-193
WomenPriests.org, 166
Wyszyński, Stefan, 35, 246-248, 252-256, 267, 438, 443, 520-521, 530, 566-567, 573, 584, 591, 620, 623, 648-649, 665-666

Youth Apostles Online, 452

Zachuta, Feliks, 319
Zanussi, Krzysztof, 278, 281
Zdybicka, Zofia, 2, 40, 106-108, 111, 114, 285, 509, 624, 636
ZENIT, 511
Zirer, Edith, 319-320
Zukav, Gary, 413
Żarnecka, Zofia, 87-88

Życzkowska, Teresa

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New Liberal Image for Benedict XVI for His Trip to Australia; But Is It Accurate?

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Writing for The Sydney Morning Herald, Australian religion editor Barney Zwartz has tried to create a new image for Pope Benedict XVI on the eve of his visit to Australia. According to Mr. Zwartz, Benedict XVI, the former Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, is a far more gentle and liberal figure than his immediate predecessor and former boss, Pope John Paul II. “There have been continuities,” Mr. Zwartz writes, “but in many ways he has been a stark contrast – more self-effacing, gentle and intellectual – to the previous Pope, for whom he was chief adviser and doctrinal watchdog.” According to Mr. Zwartz, since Benedict XVI took over the papacy from John Paul II, “there have been no heresy hunts, few confrontations, a much less visible presence and much less travel. His writings, including encyclicals on love and hope, have been optimistic. A profound and subtle theologian, he has sought to engage and to persuade, inside and outside the church.”

 

The masters of papal image making at the Vatican could not promote such comparisons openly, but Mr. Zwartz’s article does the job for them. Whether what he wrote has any element of truth to it is, however, debatable. After all, the “heresy hunts” under Pope John Paul II, to which Zwartz refers to in his article, were conducted by Cardinal Ratzinger.

 

While doing research for my book Wojtyla’s Women: How They Shaped the Life of Pope John Paul II and Changed the Catholic Church, (O-Books, June 2008) I saw plenty of evidence that Cartidinal Ratzinger and Pope John Paul II saw eye to eye on nearly all the issues affecting women: such as abortion, birth control, and women priests. They were in total agreement on all principle points. If anything, Cardinal Ratzinger was the one advocating slightly less flexible positions on the role of women in the Church.

 

Benedict XVI has always been a great admirer of Pope John Paul II. As a former close advisor to John Paul II, Cardinal Ratzinger did not think conservative Polish upbringing and life under fascism and communism made the Polish Pope incapable of understanding Western cultures and Western women. He was convinced John Paul II had a unique ability to combine his vast experience, intellectual analysis, and faith to investigate with unprecedented human empathy “the nature of virginity, marriage, motherhood and fatherhood, the language of the body, and, thus, the essence of love.”

 

I found plenty of evidence of John Paul II’s deep faith, as well as many examples of his unprecedented human empathy on a personal level, but even Cardinal Ratzinger admitted that “when the Pope speaks, he does not speak in his own name.” His personal empathy may not extend to matters that affect the whole Church if he thinks his public statements might encourage unwanted behavior. Cardinal Ratzinger also defended John Paul II from criticism that, being a Pole, he only knew “the sentimental, traditional piety of his country and hence cannot completely understand the complicated issues of the Western world.” Ratzinger concluded that such a criticism is both “foolish” and “shows a complete ignorance of history.” He pointed out that Poland has always been at the intersection of various cultures: Germanic, Romance, Slavic, and Greco-Byzantine.

 

In 1988, Cardinal Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) took action against American Catholic priest Father Matthew Fox who is a leading exponent of Creation Spirituality. In 1992, Father Fox was expelled from the Dominican Order and subsequently became an Episcopal priest. One of the reasons for the Vatican’s harsh treatment of Dr. Fox may have been his advocacy of equal treatment of women in the Catholic Church. Fox accused John Paul II of taking action against feminist philosophers, preventing girls from serving at the altar and denying priesthood to women. According to Dr. Fox, Cardinal Ratzinger called his work “dangerous and deviant.”

 

U.S. Catholic newspaper, The National Catholic Reporter, published a list of 24 prominent theologians and others who had been silenced or subjected to various forms of papal discipline under Pope John Paul II and Cardinal Ratzinger. The list includes such names as: Fr. Hans Küng, Fr. Edward Schillebeeckx, Fr. Charles Curran, Leonardo Boff, Fr. Gustavo Gutiérrez, Fr. Karl Rahner, Fr. Matthew Fox, a sister of Mercy Mary Agnes Mansour, the former archbishop of Seattle Raymond Hunthausen, Fr. Robert Nugent and Sr. Jeannine Gramick who ministered to homosexuals, a Brazilian Sister of Notre Dame Ivone Gebara and several others. While Mr. Zwartz makes a big deal of a recent meeting between Benedict XVI and Father Küng, when the Vatican took the initial action against Father Küng, Cardinal Ratzinger strongly supported and carried out John Paul II’s instructions.

 

Cardinal Ratzinger also shared John Paul II’s low opinion of American liberalism, and Western liberalism in general. In a 1984 interview, he suggested that being rich is a measure of one’s worth in North America and “the values and style of life proposed by [American] Catholics appear more than ever as a scandal.”

 

Ordinatio sacerdotalis, the 1994 Apostolic Letter on reserving priestly ordination to men alone, was one of many documents and statements from Pope John Paul II designed to counter radical feminist influences within the Church and to quiet demands for ordination of women-priests. In October 1995, the Vatican’s Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a letter signed by its then Prefect, Cardinal Ratzinger. In the letter, Cardinal Ratzinger amplified, explained and defended papal arguments against the ordination of women by stressing the constancy of the Church’s tradition and teachings on the subject from the very beginning of Christianity. Cardinal Ratzinger explained that while John Paul II did not invoke papal infallibility, his ban on the ordination of women should nevertheless be considered as infallible because it is based on the infallibility of the “ordinary magisterium” of all the bishops agreeing with a particular Church teaching. At the same time, Cardinal Ratzinger repeated the argument used by John Paul II that the denial of priesthood to women can only be properly understood in the context of what the Church teaches about “the equal personal dignity of men and women”—as exemplified by the role of Virgin Mary, who was not selected by Jesus to be an Apostle or a priest. In Cardinal Ratzinger’s words, “diversity of mission in no way compromises equality of personal dignity.” In an attempt to diffuse the claim of male domination within the Church, Cardinal Ratzinger also argued that the ministerial priesthood is “not a position of privilege or human power over others.”

 

Barney Zwartz describes Benedict XVI as “a profound and subtle theologian” who “has sought to engage and to persuade, inside and outside the church.” Catholic liberals and women demanding ordination to priesthood would have disagreed with this assessment. Cardinal Ratzinger had revoked the ordination of Ludmila Javorova, who had been ordained as priest by a Catholic bishop in communist Czechoslovakia to enable her to hear confessions and serve communion in prisons, to which males priests had no easy access. Cardinal Ratzinger, now Pope Benedict XVI, also asserted that it would be incorrect and even absurd to consider the ordination of women to the priesthood as one aspect of the liberation of women. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which through its members and Cardinal Ratzinger invariably reflected the views of the Pope, has implied among other things that allowing women to become priests could undermine the Church’s current position on the complementarity of the sexes and lead to the neutering of society.

 

In 1997, Dr. Jeannine Gramick, a Roman Catholic nun, and Fr. Robert Nugent, a Roman Catholic priest, co-founded New Ways Ministry, an organization providing ministry and support to gay and lesbian Catholics in the United States. In 2000, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith under the leadership of Cardinal
Joseph Ratzinger disciplined both Gramick and Nugent and ordered them to stop writing and speaking out on issues of homosexuality. Gramick rejected the order and transferred from the School Sisters of Notre Dame to the Sisters of Loretto, which support her in her ministry on behalf of lesbian and gay people. After being silenced, Father Nugent remains a priest in good standing. In 2005, New Ways Ministry raised concerns about the election of Cardinal Ratzinger to the papacy: “Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger’s record at the Vatican has been marked by decisions to end discussion on important questions and issues facing Catholics and the world. His hard-handed tactics of silencing theologians and using language that offends rather than heals have caused much alienation and anger….His record on lesbian/gay issues has been notoriously insensitive. Instead of listening to the voices of the laity, or even of other bishops, he has been the architect of documents and policies that reveal a tremendous lack of understanding of homosexuality and of the experiences of lesbian/gay people.” A conservative Catholic web site, OurLadyWarriors.org describes New Ways Ministry as “militant advocate of homosexuality which also demands ordination and ministry for homosexuals.”

 

In his 2004 Letter to the Bishops on the Collaboration of Men and Women in the Church and in the World, Cardinal Ratzinger blamed radical feminism for overemphasizing the subordination of women and forcing them to seek power, although he did not specifically use the words “feminism” or “feminists” in the letter. This tendency, according to Cardinal Ratzinger, leads to competition between sexes with “lethal effects in the structure of the family.” He also blamed radical feminism for minimizing and obscuring the differences between the sexes. In Cardinal Ratzinger’s view, this kind of reasoning makes “homosexuality and heterosexuality virtually equivalent” and calls into question the role of “the family in its natural two-parent structure of mother and father.”15 The document was approved by Pope John Paul II.

 

There is strong resistance to radical feminism, homosexual marriages, legalized abortion, contraception and ordination of women-priests among conservative Catholics who applauded Cardinal Ratzinger’s election as pope. At the very beginning of his papacy, John Paul II also put his faith in this group of dedicated religious conservatives. At that time, he was strongly encouraged and supported by Cardinal Ratzinger. Australian religion editor Barney Zwartz’s article in The Sydney Morning Herald was an attempt to change Pope Benedict XVI’s image and make him look more liberal before his trip to Australia, but there is little historical and factual support for Mr. Zwartz’s arguments.

 

Wojtyla's Women: How They Shaped the Life of Pope John Paul II and Changed the Catholic ChurchTed Lipien is a former director of the Polish Service of the Voice of America (VOA) and a journalist with more than 30 years of reporting and writing about politics, society, women’s issues, and the Catholic Church in Poland. His book, Wojtyla’s Women: How They Shaped the Life of Pope John Paul II and Changed the Catholic Church, has been published in June 2008 by O-Books in the U.K. There is more information on his website: http://www.tedlipien.com

 

Pope Benedict XVI Photo Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/djsacche/185335570/ |Author=eürodäna @ Flickr |Date=2006-06-07 | This photo is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.0 License.

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Popes get conflicting advice on what to say to Americans and don’t always say what they really think

benedictxvi
Taking example from John Paul II, Pope Benedict XVI will not scold Americans during his first pontifical visit to the United States. Just like John Paul II, he is also concerned about his public image. Vatican diplomats have admitted as much in their pre-trip media interviews when they suggested that the pope will try to present a moderate tone during his American visit. More likely than not, however, what Americans will hear from Benedict XVI and what he really thinks about the American society and liberal American Catholics, are two different things.

 

When doing research for my book on the role of women in Karol Wojtyła’s life, I came across convincing evidence that prior to his historic first visit to the United States in 1979, John Paul actually wanted to be very honest and blunt in telling Americans what he really thought about their liberal views on such issues as abortion, contraception, and feminism.

 

Dr. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, a Polish-American professor of philosophy who had been Wojtyła’s close friend and translated into English his book The Acting Person, shared with me her unique insights about the preparations for his 1979 visit. This philosopher-phenomenologist told me that at the outset of his papacy, John Paul II’s conservative Polish friends fed him a lot of misinformation about America. She claimed, however, that she had been able to get him to modify some of his views.

 

Indeed, some of John Paul II’s first papal speeches did include positive comments about the American society, but in later years I saw a marked decline in the warmth of the pope’s messages to Americans. More and more they began to reflect his exasperation with America, its liberal values and its growing influence around the world.

 

American women in particular, including Catholic nuns, publicly challenged many of John Paul II’s assumptions and expectations. While they were not able to change his views to any significant degree, their challenge prompted him to pay more attention to women’s issues and to develop the theology behind new Catholic feminism.

 

Before John Paul’s first papal trip to the United States in 1979, Dr. Tymieniecka visited him at Castel Gandolfo and discussed with him his proposed speeches. Some of the speeches may have been drafted in part by Dr. Wanda Półtawska, a Polish psychiatrist and a victim of Nazi medical experiments. She had been Wojtyła’s scientific advisor on birth control and had helped him convince Pope Paul VI to issue his 1968 anti-contraception encyclical Humanae vitae. The encyclical, for which Cardinal Wojtyła and Dr. Półtawska provided Pope Paul VI with supportive research, drove millions of women and men away from the church.

 

Dr. Tymieniecka told me in 2007 that she did not review the texts of papal speeches prior to his 1979 visit but held discussions with John Paul II about what kind of messages might resonate well with Americans. She confirmed that his initial ideas, which his conservative Polish friends had suggested, were way off the mark as far as the realities of life in the United States were concerned. But she said that she had managed to talk him into making drastic changes in his speeches to Americans and was gratified to hear that he had taken her advice.

 

Dr. Tymieniecka takes partial credit for some of John Paul II’s first words on the American soil after his arrival in Boston on October 1, 1979. He said that he came “with sentiments of friendship, reverence and esteem” and “as one who already knows you and loves you.” According to her, these words had set the tone for his first apostolic visit to the United States. But the visit could have been much different if he had accepted the advice of his conservative Polish friends.

 

Dr. Tymieniecka told me that while John Paul II’s initial views about America may have been uninformed, she said that this was quite normal at that time for any person living in communist Poland. She also told me that she not only had persuaded him to adopt a more moderate tone in speaking to Americans during his first visit but that in subsequent years his opinions of Americans, American society and the American Catholic Church became drastically more positive.

 

Wojtyla's Women: How They Shaped the Life of Pope John Paul II and Changed the Catholic Church by Ted LipienHowever, my own analysis of John Paul II’s later speeches to Americans shows a definite trend toward a much more critical attitude. He told American bishops in 1999 that that America was “a continent marked by competition and aggressiveness, unbridled consumerism and corruption,” and he saw Americans as being deeply unhappy despite their material wealth, an observation for which there is little support.

 

Although he will try to hide it, Benedict XVI also does not have a very high opinion of the American society and the liberal wing of the American Catholic Church. In a 1984 interview, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (now Benedict XVI) suggested that being rich is a measure of one’s worth in North America and “the values and style of life proposed by [American] Catholics appear more than ever as a scandal.”

 

Father Charles E. Curran, who was accused of being too liberal and was fired from his teaching position as a Catholic theologian by the Catholic University of America on orders from John Paul II and Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, believes the previous pope took “several major strides backward” on issues of human sexuality and the rights of women.

 

But determined to continue the conservative line established by his immediate predecessor, Benedict XVI believes that giving in to the demands of liberal Catholics on such issues as abortion, contraception, women-priests and gay marriages would ultimately destroy the Catholic Church and fatally undermine the respect for life and basic morality. Benedict XVI prefers the Church to become smaller and more conservative rather than allow liberal American and West European Catholics impose their liberal values on the rest of the world. During his visit to the U.S., however, he is not likely to make any strong critical comments about American liberalism.

 

Ted Lipien is the author of Wojtyla’s Women: How They Shaped the Life of Pope John Paul II and Changed the Catholic Church.

 

Ted Lipien ’s email address is: mail@tedlipien.com. For radio, TV, Internet and print media interviews with the author, please call: 415-793-1642. For more information about Ted Lipien and his book on Pope John Paul II, please visit: www.TedLipien.com

 

Pope Benedict XVI Photo Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/djsacche/185335570/ |Author=eürodäna @ Flickr |Date=2006-06-07 | This photo is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.0 License.

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Wojtyła’s Women: How Women, History and Polish Traditions Shaped the Life of Pope John Paul II and Changed the Catholic Church

I chose this the tile for my book about Pope John Paul II not only to emphasize the role of women in his life but also to show how their role and his attitudes and views about women were influenced by Polish culture, traditions and history. Here is short description I wrote for the cover.

Wojtyla's Women: How They Shaped the Life of Pope John Paul II and Changed the Catholic Church by Ted Lipien

John Paul II, the most charismatic and influential Pope in centuries, reshaped many facets of Catholic thought. Yet Church policy on women during his papacy remained deeply resistant to popular modern ideas on gender roles. WOJTYŁA’s WOMEN explores John Paul II’s views on women, marriage, family and sexual ethics from both feminist and conservative Christian perspectives. Previously untapped sources reveal the influence of his upbringing in Poland at the outset of the 20th century, a time when deeply rooted traditions collided with rapid social change and new ideas, against a backdrop of war, genocide, and political oppression. As the book reveals, women were a remarkable and unexpected influence on John Paul’s understanding of gender issues and the Catholic Church’s theology.

Wojtyła’s Women was published in June 2008 by O-Books, a publisher of religious and spiritual books in Great Britain. It is availabe in bookstores in the U.K. and the United States and can also be purchased through O-Books and Amazon websites.